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APA Help: APA Examples

Welcome to the APA Citation Examples Page!

The examples presented on this page are those most requested by Mohawk College students and are based on the 6th editions of the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association and the APA style guide to electronic resourcesIf you don't see the source you are looking for, please ask a member of the Library staff for assistance.

Examples provided for "in text" citations are for the first time an item is cited. Please see page 177 of the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association for examples of formatting subsequent citations.

NOTE: Do not format your References list like this page. These are examples of individual citations only. In your final References list,  you will list each citation once in alphabetical order by the author's last name. Citations are to be double spaced.

Online Journals

Notes on journals: APA rule 6.32 (p. 189-192) tells you to use the DOI if one has been assigned. If a DOI has been assigned, no further information is required. If there is no DOI, you need to provide the home page URL of the journal, book or report publisher. Do a quick Google search to find the url. See the "DOI help" tab for more information on where to find DOIs.

Note: Provide the DOI exactly as published; there are a few different formats.


Journal Article with a DOI

General Reference:

Author, D., & Author, E. (Year) Title of article. Title of Journal, volume, page(s). http://dx.doi.xx.xxxxxx

In Text Citation:

(Author & Author, Date)

Reference List Example:

Andrys, O. (2011). Proving the pudding: Optimising the structure of academic development. Journal of Higher Education Policy & Management, 33 (5), 485-496. http://dx.doi.10.1080/1360080X.2011.605223

In Text Citation Example:

(Andrys, 2011)


Journal Article without a DOI

General Reference:

Author, A., Author, B., & Author, C. (Year) Title of article. Title of Journal, volume, page(s). Retrieved from http://websiteaddress.com

In Text Citation:

(Author, Author, & Author, Date)

Reference List Example:

Gallard, A. J., Albritton, F., & Morgan, M. W. (2010). A comprehensive cost/benefit model: Developmental student success impact. Journal of Developmental Education, 34 (1), 10-25. Retrieved from http://ncde.appstate.edu/publications/journal-developmental-education-jde

In Text Citation Example:

(Gallard, Albritton, & Morgan, 2010)

Other Online Resources

Web Document

General Reference:

Author. (Date). Title of web document. Retrieved from www.webpageaddress.com

In Text Citation:

(Author, Date)

Reference List Example:

Health Canada. (2006). The national strategy: Moving forward- the 2006 progress report on tobacco control. Retrieved from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hc-ps/pubs/tobac-tabac/prtc-relct-2006/index-eng.php​

In Text Citation Example:

(Health Canada, 2006)


Web Document no Author or Date

General Reference:

Title. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.websiteaddress.com

In Text Citation:

("Title," n.d.)

Reference List Example:

What goes in and out of hydraulic fracturing? (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.dangersoffracking.com

In Text Citation Example:

("What goes," n.d.)


Newspaper Article

General Reference:

Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from www.webpageaddress.com

In Text Citation:

(Author, Year)

Reference List Example:

Zerbisias, A. (2009, February 19). Twitpics, retworts, hash tags and twicks: Just when you figured out Facebook, everybody's talking Twitter. The Hamilton Spectator. Retrieved from http://www.thespec.com/

In Text Citation Example:

(Zerbisias, 2009)


Blog Entry

General Reference: 

Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title [Blog post]. Retrieved from www.webpageaddress.com

In Text Citation:

(Author, Year)

Reference List Example:

BRAIN_blog. (2011, August 9). Need help getting started? Try our guides & tutorials![Blog post]. Retrieved from http://librarybrainblog.wordpress.com/

In Text Citation Example:

(BRAIN_blog, 2011)


Online Video - Library/YouTube

General Reference: 

Creator, A. (Year, Month Day). Title [Video file]. Retrieved from www.webpageaddress.com

In Text Citation:

(Creator, Date)

Reference List Example:

ConceptMedia. (2008). Effective communication [Video file]. Retrieved from http://lib-media.mohawkcollege.ca /index.php?vid=Helping_Interview-Part1

In Text Citation Example:

(ConceptMedia, 2008)


TedTalk Video - Library Online Video Database / YouTube / TedTalk

How you cite a TedTalk video depends on where you retrieved it. You need to use the format for basic video reference, plus make some adjustments to accommodate from where you obtained the video.

TedTalk video found in the library's Films on Demand database:

Ted [Producer]. (2012). TedTalks: J. J. Abrams—the mystery box [Video File]. Retrieved from https://fod.infobase.com/p_Home.aspx

In Text Citation:

( Ted, 2012)

See APA manuals for complete explanation (2010, p. 192, 2012, p. 25).

TedTalk video found on YouTube:

Ted. (2008, January 14). JJ Abrams: The mystery box [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/vpjVgF5JDq8

In Text Citation:

(Ted, 2008)

TedTalk video found on the Ted website:

Abrams, J.J. (2007). JJ Abrams: The mystery box [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/j_j_abrams_mystery_box

In Text Citation:

(Abrams, 2007)

Books

Book - One Author

General Reference:

Author, A. (Year). Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

In Text Citation:

(Author, Date)

Reference List Example:

McWhorter, K. T. (2004). College reading and study skills. New York, NY: Pearson/Longman.

In Text Citation Example:

(McWhorter, 2004)


Book - Two Authors

General Reference:

Author, A., & Author, B. (Date). Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

In Text Citation:

(Author & Author, Date)

Reference List Example:

Hodgson, J. D., & Graham, J. L. (2000). Doing business with the new Japan. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

In Text Citation Example:

(Hodgson & Graham, 2000)


Chapter - Edited Book

General Reference:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (edition, volume and/or pp. pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.

In Text Citation:

(Authors' last names, date)

Reference List Example:

Ruchala, P., & Clauson, M. (2009). Young to middle adulthood. In P.A. Potter, A. G. Perry, J.C. Ross-Kerr, & M.J. Woods (Eds.), Canadian fundamentals of nursing (4th ed., pp. 363-376). Toronto, ON: Elsevier.

In Text citation Example:

(Ruchala & Clauson, 2009)


eBook

General Reference:

Author, B. (Year). Title. Retrieved from http://websiteaddress.com

In Text Citation:

(Author, Date)

Reference List Example:

Taylor, R. (2005). The complete mind makeover: Transform your life and achieve success. Retrieved from

http://www.ebscohost.com

In Text Citation Example: 

(Taylor, 2005)

Material on eLearn

PowerPoint Presentations, Lecture Notes, etc.

Use the following format to cite things like lecture notes, PowerPoint presentations, etc. created by your teacher and posted in eLearn.

General Reference:

Author, A. (Date). Title of document [Format description]. Retrieved from http://eLearn.websiteaddress.ca

In Text Citation:

(Author, Date)

Reference List Example:

Williamson, C. (2014, January 9). How to cite class notes using APA [PowerPoint presentation]. Retrieved from https://elearn.mohawkcollege.ca

In Text Citation Example:

(Williamson,  2014)

Multiple references by the same author

In text, parenthetical, same author:

The past research did not support the earlier findings (Smith, 2011a, 2011b).


See rule 6.16 Two or More Works Within the Same Parentheses (APA, 2010, p. 178).

See APA Style Blog: How to Cite Multiple Pages From the Same Website

Personal Communication

Interviews, Letters, Memos, etc.

When material is not recoverable (like personal interviews, private letters, memos, or telephone conversations),  cite it in text as a personal communication (APA, 2010, p. 17).  Include both the initial and surname of the communicator in the in text citation. Do not include the information in the References list.

General In Text Citation:

(Interviewee, personal communication, Month Day, Year)

In Text Citation Example:

(A. Smith, personal communication, January 1, 2011)

More sources of examples