APA Help: Quick Guide

APA Printable Quick Guide

APA Help: In-depth Guide

If you need more in-depth information about APA formatting, you can find it in the APA Help: In-depth Guide.

APA Resources

These guides are based on the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010) and the APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2012).

APA Help: The Quick Guide

This APA Help: Quick Guide provides examples of some of the most common types of in-text citations and references you will need to construct. If you don't see the source you are looking for, please ask a member of the Library staff for assistance.

Electronic Sources

  •  APA rule 6.32 (p. 189-192) tells you to use the DOI if one has been assigned.
  • If a DOI has been assigned, no further information is required.
  • If there is no DOI, you need to provide the home page URL of the journal, book or report publisher. Do a quick Google search to find the URL.
  • Provide the DOI exactly as published; there are a few different formats.

General Reference With DOI:

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number if Page Numbering Begins at 1 for Each Issue in the Volume), first page number-last page number. doi: doi number  

General Reference Without DOI:

 Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number if Page Numbering Begins at 1 for Each Issue in the Volume), first page number-last page number. Retrieved from URL of journal's homepage

First and subsequent in-text citation: Author (Date)

First and subsequent parenthetical citation:  (Author, Date)


Reference List Example:

Andrys, O. (2011). Proving the pudding: Optimizing the structure of academic development. Journal of Higher Education Policy & Management, 33 (5), 485-496. http://dx.doi.10.1080/1360080X.2011.605223
Tocantins, L. M. (1938). The mammalian blood platelet in health and disease. Medicine, 17(2), 155. Retrieved from  http://journals.lww.com/md-journal/pages/default.aspx 

First and subsequent in-text citation: Andrys (2011) and Tocantins (1938, p. 155)

First and subsequent parenthetical citation:  (Andrys, 2006; Tocantins, 1938)

  • If the magazine is published weekly, include the date of publication (APA, 2012, p. 14).
  • Provide the DOI exactly as published; there are a few different formats (APA, 2012, p. 5).

General Reference:

Author's last name, First initial. (Year of publication, Month). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), page number. Retrieved from URL

First and subsequent in-text Citation: (Author, Date)


Reference List Example:

Clay, R. A. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back against the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6). Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor

First and subsequent in-text Citation: (Clay, 2008, para. 4)

General Reference: 

Author's last name, First initial. (Year of publication, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, pp. page numbers. Retrieved from URL

First and subsequent in-text Citation: Author (Date)

First and subsequent parenthetical citation:(Author, Date)


Reference List Examples:

Moko, L. (2007. April 2). Smooth moves: Mohawk honours outstanding athletic, academic Mountaineers. The Hamilton Spectator, p. SP10.
$1 Salaries for Google billionaires. (2007, April 5). The Hamilton Spectator, p. A22. Retrieved from http://www.thespec.com/

First and subsequent in-text Citation:Moko (2007)

First and subsequent parenthetical citation:("$1 Salaries", 2007, p. A22)

General Reference: 

Author, D. (Year). Title of book: Subtitle of book. Retrieved from http://the home page of the online library

General Reference with DOI:

Author, D. (Year). Title of book: Subtitle of book. Place of publication: Name of publisher. doi:

First and Subsequent In-text Citation: Author (Date)

First and Subsequent Parenthetical Citation: (Author, Date)


Reference List Examples:

Edward, M. & Medical Library Association. (2016). Interprofessional education and medical libraries: Partnering for success.  Retrieved from https://www.ebscohost.com/ebooks

 First and Subsequent In-text Citation:  Edward and Medical Library Association (2016, p. 3)

 First and Subsequent Parenthetical Citation:  (Edward & Medical Library Association, 2016, p. 3)

General Reference

Author, A., & Author, B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book: Subtitle of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Retrieved from http://the home page of the online library

General Reference - eBook with DOI:

Author, A., & Author, B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book:  Subtitle of book (pp. xxx-xxx). doi:xxxxxxxxxxx

First and Subsequent In-text Citation: (Author, Date)


Reference List Examples:

Buback, M. (2000). Initiation and termination rates associated with free-radical polymerization in extended ranges of temperature and pressure. In K.  Matyjaszewski (Ed), Controlled/living radical polymerization: Progress in ATRP, NMP, and RAFT (Volume 768). doi: 10.1021/bk-2000-0768
Burchsted, F. (2014). Biography. In J.B. Whitlatch & S. E. Searning (Eds.), Guide to Reference: Essential general reference and library science sources (pp. 20-30). Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/

First and Subsequent In-text Citation: (Buback, 2000, Burchsted, 2014, p. 22)

PowerPoint Presentations, Lecture Notes, etc.

Use the following format to cite things like lecture notes, PowerPoint presentations, etc. created by your teacher and posted in eLearn.


General Reference: 

Author, A. (Date). Title of document [Format description]. Retrieved from http://eLearn.websiteaddress.ca

First and Subsequent In-text Citation: (Author, Date)


Reference List Example:

Williamson, C. (2014, January 9). How to cite class notes using APA [PowerPoint presentation]. Retrieved from https://elearn.mohawkcollege.ca 

First and Subsequent In-text Citation: (Williamson, 2014)


Advice from the APA Style Blog:

If you are citing an entire website, provide the address of the site within the text of your paper. According to APA, there is no need to include the site in your reference list. Example:

The APA Style website is a good source of information on using APA style properly (http://www.apastyle.org).

See Citing entire websites, feeds, and pages (APA, 2012, p. 32).

General Reference: 

Author. (Date). Title of web document. Retrieved from www.webpageaddress.com 

First and subsequent in-text Citation: (Author, Date)


Reference List Example:

Health Canada. (2006). The national strategy: Moving forward- the 2006 progress report on tobacco control. Retrieved from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hc-ps/pubs/tobac-tabac/prtc-relct-2006/index-eng.php

First and subsequent in-text Citation: (Health Canada, 2006)


Web Document no Author or Date

General Reference:

Title of web document. (n.d.). Retrieved from  http//:www.xxxxxxx

First and Subsequent In-text Citation: (Title)


Reference List Example:

What goes in and out of hydraulic fracturing? (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.dangersoffracking.com 

First and subsequent in-text Citation: ("What goes", n.d.)


See APA Style Blog:  Website vs Web Page

See rule 6.15, Works with No Identified Author or With an Anonymous Author (APA, 2010, p. 176).

General Reference - Online Video:

Creator, A. (Year, Month Day). Title [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.websiteaddress.com

General Reference - Streaming Video (YouTube, etc.)

Author, A. A. [User name]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.websiteaddress.com
User name. (Year, Month Day). Title [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.websiteaddress.com

Reference List Example:

Apsolon, M. [markapsolon]. (2011, September 9). Real ghost girl caught on Video Tape 14 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/wathc?v=6nyGCbxD848
Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavior Therapy. (2012, March 30). Aaron T. Beck, M.D. interviewed by Judith S. Beck, Ph.D.  [Video File]. Retrieved from http://www.youtuve.com/wathc?v-7BZp7ZiAE3c
Delmar Cengage Learning. (2008).  Effective communication  [Video file]. Retrieved from http://lib-medi.mohawkcollege.ca/index.php?vid=Healping_Interview-Part1

First and subsequent in-text Citation: 

(Apsolon, 2011; Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 2012; Delmar Cengage Learning, 2008). 

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